Kukosha kwekuongorora ivhu

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Wendy Madzura
MAZUVA ano kurima rave bhizimusi, nokudaro donzvo revarimi rinofanira kuva rekuti vatevedze tsika dzinoita kuti varime zvine pundutso. Ivhu ndicho chimwe chezvinhu zvinokosha nekuti muvhu ndimo munokurira mbesa.

Nokudaro zvakakosha kuti varimi vaone kuti ivhu raongororwa (soil analysis). Kune zvinhu zviviri zvakakosha muvhu kuti mbesa dzikure zvakanaka zvinoti:

  1. i) Kukwanisa kupa mbeu kudya kwakakodzera nehuwandu hwakakwana uye panguva yakafanira.
  2. ii) Kukwanisa kupa mbeu mvura kana hunyoro hwakakwana kuti mbesa dzikure zvakanaka.

Nokudaro zvakakosha kuti varimi vaongorore ivhu ravo kuti vaone kuti riri kuvava kana kutapira zvakadii (pH), uye kuti muvhu mune kudya kwakadii, iya yatinoti fertility/nutrient analysis.

Muchando ndiyo nguva yakanaka kuongorora ivhu:

  1. i) nekuti zvinopa varimi nguva yakakwana yekuti vawane mhinduro maringe nemamiriro evhu ravo uye kuti vaite gadziro dzinodiwa mwaka unotevera usati wasvika.
  2. ii) kuongorora ivhu panguva yechando kunoita kuti varimi vanoda kurima mbesa dzemuchando vaite gadziriro yakakwana yefertireza inodiwa. Ivhu rinofanira kuongororwa kamwe pamakore matatu kana mana asi zvinosiyana nemarimiro amunenge muchiita. Munda unoitwa double cropping unoda kuongororwa mushure menguva pfupi kudarika munda unorimwa kamwe chete pagore,

Nzira yekutora ivhu inoshandiswa nevazhinji ndeye kupatsanura munda zvichienderana nekusiyana kwakaita ruvara kana mamiriro evhu (jecha, dzvuku, shapa, mhukutu).

Zvakakosha kuti varimi vasatore ivhu pachuru, mucheto wemunda zvinhambo zvishanu 5m, nzvimbo dzinosanganisirwa mishonga kana kugadzirwa fetereza, nekuti rinenge rakasiyana nerimwe.

Pakutora ivhu, varimi vanofanira kuziva kuti chakakosha kuwana chitsama chevhu chinenge chichimirira mamiriro emunda wese. Nzira dzokutora ivhu dzinosanganisira kutora munda muchinyora Z, kuchinjika (diagonal), kana kungotora nzvimbo dzakawanda pandima imwechete (random sampling).

Ivhu rinogona kutorwa pandima ine ivhu rakafanana dzinogona kuita gumi kusvika pamakumi maviri.

Pakutora ivhu panoshanda badza, foshoro kana kuti inonzi sampling auger. Varimi vanofanira kudzikisa badza kusvika pa20cm dzokutanga nokuti umu ndimo munokurira midzi yembesa. Zvakakosha zvekare kuti midziyo yese ichashandiswa kutora ivhu, uye parichaiswa pakachena kuitira kuti zvisakanganise mamiriro evhu ratorwa.

Kana ivhu remindima yakafana ratorwa, rinofanira kusanganiswa potorwa chitsama chishoma chekuendesa kunoongororwa (1 – 1.5 kg).

Zvakakosha kunyora zvinoonekwa pabepa rinotsanangura kuti ivhu rinenge rabva pai nokuti zvinozobatsira pakuverenga mirairo inozouya mushure meongororo.

Ivhu rinoongororwa ku nzvimbo dzinosanganisira kubazi reHurumende rinoona nezvetsvakurudzo, kambani inoona nezvekurimwa kwefodya yeTRB, zvikoro zvedzidzo yepamusoro (university) pamwe chete nemakambani anogadzira mafetireza.

Varimi vanofanira kuziva kuti kune chikero chinoshandiswa kuona kuti ivhu riri kuvava here kana kutapira chinonzi (calcium chloride scale). Ivhu rinovava (acidic) rinenge riri pasi pa7 pachikero ichi asi rinenge riri pamusoro pe7 rinonzi rinotapira (alkaline).

Zvinhu zvitatu zvinoita kuti ivhu rinzi rinovava:

  1. i) Chokutanga kukohwa varimi vachibvisa mashanga ese mumunda kunoita kuti ivhu rirasikirwe nekudya kunonosanganisira calcium nemagnesium.
  2. ii) Mvura yekunaya inogona kugeza kumwe kudya kunenge kuri muvhu kobva kwaenda pasi pasingakwanisi kusvikwa nemidzi zvoita kuti ivhu ritange kuvava.

iii) Kushandisa mhando yefetireza ine kudya kweNitrogen inosanganisira AN, Urea

Kuvava kwevhu kunokwanisa kuita kuti ivhu ritadze kushanda zvakanaka nenzira dzinotevera:

— Kuvava kwevhu kunokwanisa kusvika pakutadzisa chirimwa kukura zvakanaka kana kupisa chirimwa (toxicity)

— Kana ivhu richivava rinobva rasunga kumwe kudya kunodiwa nembesa, mbesa yotadza kukura zvakanaka. Muyenzaniso ndewe kudya kwePhosphorous kunokudza midzi inozoita kuti mbeu itore mafetireza nemvura.

— Kune kumwe kudya kunodiwa nembesa kusina kuwanda anonzi mamicro nutrients/trace elements, kunoita kushoma zvotadzisa mbeu kukura zvakanaka.

— Kuvava kwevhu kunoita kuti twupukanana twemuvhu twunobatsira twutadze kukura zvakanaka.

— Uye mamiriro evhu (physical structure) anokanganiswa nekuvava kwevhu zvoita kuti ivhu riite chikoko chakaomarara pamusoro icho chinotadzisa mbeu kumera zvakanaka.

Kana munda uine ivhu rinovava, varimi vanofanira kushandisa lime. Mhando dzelime dzinosanganisira DOLOMITIC LIME neCALCITIC LIME. Mhando mbiri idzi dzinosiyana pakugadzirisa kwadzo ivhu uye pachikafu chadzinowedzera muvhu.

Hatikurudziri varimi kungoisa chero lime nekuti zvinoita kuti kumwe kudya kunodiwa nembesa kuite kushoma, varimi voona mavara pamashizha embesa dzavo nokudaro kurudziro ndeyekuongororesa ivhu moudzwa mhando inoenderana nemunda wenyu.

Lime inoda kuiswa paine mwedzi mitatu kana kupfuura mishanu mbesa isati yadyarwa, nokuti zvinotora nguva kuti itange kushanda. Kana lime ikanonoka kuiswa, haizogadzirisi kuvava kwevhu mwaka iwoyo, inongozobatsiridza kuti mafetireza ashande zvakanaka asi kuvava yozogadzira pashure.

Lime inofanira kuiswa muvhu kusvika panenge paine midzi (15-25cm). Inoda kuita zvekumwaya munda wese (broadcasting) nemaoko kana nemuchina unonzi lime spreader. Zvakakosha kuona kuti lime nevhu zvanyatsosangana. Kana kune mhepo, hatikurudziri varimi kuisa lime nekuti yakatsetseka zvakanyanya zvinoita kuti itorwe nemhepo.

Uyu mubvunzo une varimi vazhinji, regai tipajekese ipapo. Inonzi lime ine zvainazvo zvisingawanikwi muGypsum zvinozoita kuti igadzirise kuvava kwevhu. Asi zviviri izvi zvinofanana pakuti lime ine kudya kunonzi Calcium kunowanikwawo muGypsum asi izvi havirevi kuti gypsum inoita kuti ivhu risavave. Vamwe vanototi gypsum inobatsiridza kuti ivhu rinenge roda kutapirisa (alkaline) risarambe richienderera.

Asi basa hombe regypsum kupa zvirimwa Calcium nekurerutsa ivhu kuti risaite chikoko ichisimbisa zvirimwa.

Lime inobatsira ivhu nenzira dzinotevera:

— kuvandutsa chimiro chevhu (structure)

— kupa mbesa kudya kwemhando yeCalcium neMagnesium zvinodiwa pakukura kwembesa

— kuita kuti mafetireza ashandiswe zvakakwana nembesa, zvoita kuti tiwane goho repamusoro.

— kuita kuti zvinokanganisa kukura kwembesa kana kupisa mbesa zvishaikwe muvhu.

— inobatsira twupuka twemuvhu twakakosha kuti twurarame kuti mbesa iwane zvakakwana pakukura.

— kuti mishonga yesora nemimwe ishande zvakanaka.

 

Wendy Madzura murimisi kuSeed Co.

 

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