Mishonga yesora, tumbuyu nezvirwere

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Wendy Madzura
Pakudyara mapfunde, soya beans kana chibage, zvakakosha kuti varimi vacherechedze kuti vari kudzikisa mbeu zvakafanira here maringe nekukura kwakaita tsanga dzembeu. Tinodaro nokuti mbesa dzinenge soya beans kana mapfunde dzine tsanga diki idzo dzinoti dzikadzikiswa pasi zvakanyanya, dzinogona kutadza kumera zvakanaka.KUNAYA kuri kuita mvura kubva vhiki radarika kwakaita kuti varimi vazhinji avo vanoshandisa mvura yemudenga vakwanise kudyara mbesa dzavo. Varimi vari mubishi kudyara mapfunde, soya bhinzi nechibage.

Pakudyara, varimi cherechedzai hunyoro huri muvhu. Tinokurudzira kuti varimi vave nema”rain gauge” anoratidza huwandu hwemvura inenge yanaya. Izvi zvinobatsira kuti murimi adyare mbesa zvakanaka pasina mukana wekuti mbeu inoora kana kutadza kumera zvakanaka. Mvura inokwana kumeresa mbeu i30 – 35 ml uye inenge yanaya mumazuva matatu akatevedzana.

Nhasi tiri kutarisa mashandisirwo emishonga pakurima mbesa uye kuti sei zvakakosha kuti varimi vanzwisise mashandiro emishonga pakurima. Kurima zvine pundutso uye kucherechedza pese panokwanisa kuvandudza marimiro edu senyika ndiyo yega nzira yekuti tiunze kudya kwakakwana munyika (food security), zvejare nokuvandudza mararamiro edu senyika.

Zvadaro, varimi vanofanira kuvavarira kukwidza goho ravo kuti vasare vaine mari yakawanda muhomwe, iya yatinoti profit.

Izvi zvinogoneka chete kana varimi vacheredza kuti kune zvinhu zvizhinji zvinoita kuti vakundikane pakurima asiwo kune zvinhu zviviri zvinoti:

◆  Kusarudza mbeu dzakauchikwa nehunyanzvi hwekupa goho repamusoro

◆ Kurima mbeu zvakanaka kumunda nekucherechedza zvese zvinodzikisa goho.

Kurima zvakanaka kumunda kunobva pakunzwisisa uye kushandisa mishonga yesora, yetumbuyu nezvirwere zvakanaka.

Zvakakosha kunzwisisa mashandiro anoita mishonga yesora nokuti sora rinodzikisa goho kubva pa50% kusvika pa87%. Kuti mushonga wesora ushande zvakanaka, murimi anofanira kucherechedza zvinotevera:

◆ murimi anofanira kusarudza mushonga unoenderana nembeu yarimwa

◆ murimi anofanira kucherechedza mhando yesora rinonetsa pamunda [sora remashizha akapamhamha (broadleaves), sora rine mashizha matete (grasses), sora rinoita mhodzi pasi/pfende (nutsedge)]

◆ murimi anofanira kutevedza nguva yekushandisa mishonga [pane unobata mhodzi yesora (pre-emergence) neunobata sora rinenge ramera kusvika pamuzera mudiki (post-emergence)]

◆ murimi anofanira kutarisa hunyoro hunodiwa pakushandisa mushonga unobata mhodzi yesora (pre-emergence). Pamushonga wesora rinenge ramera, zvakakosha kucherechedza pachinyorwa chinenge chiri pamushonga (label) kuti mushonga ungada nguva yakareba zvakadii kuti ushande kusati kwanaya.

◆ pakusanganisa mushonga nemvura, murimi anofanira kushandisa mvura inenge yakatarwa pamushonga kuti ushande zvakanana.

◆ varimi vazhinji vane tsika yekusanganisa mishonga yakasiyana-siyana kumunda. Izvi zvinogoneka chete kana murimi apihwa yambiro nana mazvikokota vanogadzira mishonga. Njodzi iripo ndeyekuti mishonga ikasangana inokwanisa kutadza kushanda zvakanaka kana kupisa mbesa.

Vamwe varimi vangada kunzwisisa kuti sei mushonga wesora uchizotadzisa dzimwe mbeu kumera kana kukura zvakanaka. Mishonga yesora ine mazuva ainenge yakatarirwa kuti inogara muvhu ichishanda kudzivirira imwe mhando yesora kuti isamera kunyanya mishonga iya inobata mhodzi dzesora. Murimi anofanira kucherechedza mazuva anogara mushonga muvhu pamwe chete nemhando yesora oona kuti mbesa inotevera haipindi mumhuri imwe chete nesora rinobatwa nemushonga wavanenge vasarudza.

Muenzaniso ndewe mushonga weAtrazine, uyu unoshanda kumbesa dzinosanganisira chibage uchiuraya sora remashizha akapamhamha (broadleaves). Mushonga weAtrazine unogara muvhu kwenguva inotangira pagore kusvika pagore nemwedzi mitanhatu, zvichisiyana nehuwandu hunenge hwashandiswa. Dambudziko rinozouya pakudyara dzimwe mbesa dzemhando yemabroadleaves dzinosanganisira matapiri, madomasi kana fodya. Atrazine inenge ichiti mbesa idzi isora nokudaro unodzitadzisa kukura zvakanaka.

Zvakakosha kuti murimi acherechedze sora rinonetsa pamunda pake pamwe chete nezvirongwa zvemwaka unotevera.

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Pakusarudza mishonga yetumbuyu, varimi vanofanira kucherechedza zvinotevera:

Murimi anofanira kuva chiremba wembesa dzake oita chidokwa-dokwa chokufamba mumunda achioongorora kuti pane tumbuyu twapinda here uye tune huwandu hunokodzera kuti apfapfaidze nemishonga (economic threshold).

◆ zvadaro, murimi anofanira kusarudza mushonga wetumbuyu achicherechedza kuti ungashanda zvakanaka padambudziko rake ndeupi.

◆ murimi anofanira zvakare kucherechedza zera retumbuyu twaanenge achida kuuraya.

◆ sekuchibage, gonye reFall Armyworm rinoda kuti murimi anyatsocherechedza kuti pamoyo pechibage nekuseri kwemashizha hakuna here twumadandemutande twuchena twunoratidza kuti mazai egonye avepo. Panguva iyi varimi vanokwanisa kana kuputsa mazai aya nemaoko. Vochizoona kakonye keruvara rwegreen nemusoro mutema apa gonye iri rinenge richiri kukwanisa kuurayika nemishonga mizhinji asi parinozokura zvekuoneka twumavara twutema pamusoro nekanenge kaY kumusoro kanenge kakurisa zvokuti hakafi nemimwe mishonga.

◆ tochiti kusoya tinoona kagonye kemhando semi-looper kachinetsa (kakonye kane ruvara rwegreen kanofamba kachigonya), Kakonye aka kanoda mishonga kachiri kadiki kuti kafe. Uye kasati kadya mashizha embesa zvakanyanya nokuti zvinozodzikisa Goho.

Varimi vanofanirazve kuziva kuti zvirwere zvinodzikisa goho nokuti mbeu dzinotadza kukura zvakanaka nokudaro vanofanira kucheredza zvinotevera:

◆ vanofanira kusarudza mbeu dzakauchikwa zvekudzivirira zvirwere.

◆ kutenga mbeu inenge yakaiswa mishonga yekudzivirira zvirwere zvinobata mbeu (seed dressing).

◆ muyenzaniso yembeu dzeSeed Co, kuchibage mbeu dzakadzivirirwa kubva kuzvirwere zvinoitisa ngura pamashizha, mitsara michena pamashizha iya inonzi maize streak virus,

◆ tochiti kusoya beans, mbeu dzinosanganisira SC Serenade, SC Safari neSC Status dzinokwanisa kudzivirira twumavara twutsvuku twunenge twekutsva (purple leaf blotch) nekuita mavara anenge engura pamashizha (leaf rust).

Pakusarudza nekushandisa mishonga, zvakosha kuti varimi vacherechedze zvinotevera kuti mishonga ishande zvakanaka. Izvi zvakakosha nekuti kana mushonga ukasashandiswa zvine hungwaru, varimi vanorasikirwa nemari yavanenge vatenga nayo mishonga, uye mbesa dzavo hadzidzivirirwi kana kurapwa kubva kuhosha dzakasiyana. Izvi zvinobva zvadzikisa goho revarimi.

◆ murimi ngaazive nekunzwisisa dambudziko raanoda kuti akunde nekushandisa mushonga.

–           murimi ngaaverenge nekunzwisisa mirairo inenge yakatarwa pamushonga (nguva yekuisa mushonga, huwandu hwemushonga, huwandu hwemvura, nenzira yekuisa mushonga)

◆ murimi ngaazive kuti mushonga wakanaka here kumbeu dzichazotevera kudyarwa

◆ murimi ngacherechedze kuti mushonga uri kushanda kugadzirisa dambudziko racho.

◆ murimi ngaazive kuti mushonga hauna njodzi kune achaushandisa here, uye kana unayo angazvidzivirira sei

◆ murimi ngazive kuti mushonga une mutengo wakadii, uye unoita kuti murimi asare aine mari here.

◆ murimi anofanira kucherechedza kuti zvekupfapfaidza mushonga zviri kushanda nemazvo here. Uye kuti mushonga waasarudza unoenderana here nezvaanazvo pamunda (boom spray)

Tinokurumidza murimi kuti:

◆ asashandisa mushonga mumwe chete kwenguva refu nokuti unopedzisira usisina simba.

◆ asashandisa kufanana kwembesa pakushandisa mishonga kunyanya yesora.

◆ achengetedze nharaunda, asarasira mishonga pasi kana pedyo nenzizi kana madhamu.

Mushonga wese uneNJODZI! Nokudaro tinokurudzira kuti varimi vaverenge mirairo yakanyorwa vasati vashandisa.

Simba rekukuvadza vanhu kana zvipfuyo rinosiyana zvichienderana neruvara rwunenge rwuri pamufananidzo wetriangle unowanikwa pachipepa chemirairo. Kana varimi vapedza kushandisa mishonga hatikurudziri kuti magaba emishonga asukwe oshandiswa kuita mabasa akasiyana nokuti zvine njodzi.

Kurima ibhizimusi nokudaro murimi anofanira kushandisa mishonga nehungwaru kuti avandutse bhindauko rake owana pundutso nekurima. Mishonga yakanaka asi inongoda kushandiswa nehungwaru. Mwaka zvawatanga kudai, ngaticherechedzei zvese zvinoita kuti tirime zvine pundutso.

Wendy Madzura murimisi kuSeed Co uye anobatika pa: 0773 270 080 kana paEmail wendy.madzura@seedcogroup.com

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