Rima soya beans zvine unyanzvi

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Wendy Madzura
SOYA beans imbeu yakakosha kurima muZimbabwe nokuti inofambidzana nedonzvo rekurima zvemhando yebizimusi (barming as a business) pamwe chete nekurimira kugutsa nyika (food security). Tinodaro nokuti mbeu iyi ikarimwa zvakanaka, inokwanisa kuunzira nyika mari yekunze kuburikidza nekuitengesa kunyika dzekunze.

Soya beans dzinokwanisa zvakare kushandiswa sechikafu pamusha uye dzinogadziriswa zvakasiyana-siyana semargarine, machunks, sipo, mukaka nemafuta ekubikisa.

Mbeu yesoya beans ine utano zvakanyanya nokuti ine mhando yekudya kunonzi protein (36%), carbohydrates (30%) nekumwe kudya kunodiwa nehuwandu hushoma kwemhando yemavitamins. Soya beans dzinokwanisa kushandiswa pakugadzira chikafu chezvipfuyo (crude protein 35% – 45 %).

Varimi vanokurudzirwa kurima mbesa vachichinjanisa nembeu iyi (rotation) nokuti inovandudza utano hwevhu.

Kurima soya beans kwakakosha nekuti imbeu iri kuwedzera kukosha kwatiri senyika uye kune dzimwe nyika dzokunze nokudaro nhasi tinokurukura nezvekurima mbeu iyi zvinopa murimi goho repamusoro. Izvi zvinoita kuti murimi awane pundutso pakurima kwake.

Pakurima kune zvinhu zvizhinji zvinokwanisa kudzikisa goho asi kuti murimi arime zvine pundutso, kune zvinhu zviviri zvinoti sarudzo yembeu uye kurima zvakanaka mumunda (good agronomic practices).

Pakusarudza mbeu, murimi anofanira kucherechedza zvinotevera:

l Mhando yembeu inofanira kukwana mumazuva emwaka wekunaya kwemvura (4 – 5 months)

l Mhando yembeu inofanira kupa goho repamusoro kunzvimbo yainenge yarimwa

l Mhando yembeu inofanira kusadonha iri mumunda kunyanya kana murimi achida kuzokohwa nemichina (combine harvester)

l Mhando ye mbeu inofanira kuzvirwira kubva kuzvirwere zvinosanganisira chengura pamashizha (rust) kana mavara mavara matsuku (red leaf blotch)

Mbeu yesoya beans kumunda:

Mhando dzesoya beans dzatinokuridzira dzinosanganisira SC Serenade, SC Safari neSC Spike idzi dzinoreba dzviri mumunda uye dzinopa goho repamusoro (indeterminate varieties). Dzimwe mhando dzatinokurudzira dziri mumhuri yemadeterminate varieties dzinosanganisira SC Status neSC Sentinel. Mbeu idzi dzinoita mhumhu mupfupi nokudaro murimi anokwanisa kuisa madzinde akawanda pandima. Dzinopa murimi goho rinobva pa3.5t kusvika pa5t pahekita.

Soya beans dzinonyanya kurimika muivhu gobvu pane mujecha. Hadzikuri zvakanaka muivhu rinovava (acidic pH level). Dzinoda ivhu riri pakati pe5.5 – 6.5 pachipimo chinotarisa kuvava kana kutapira kwevhu (pH scale). Mbeu iyi inoda kurimwa kunzvimbo dzinonaya mvura zvakanaka (550 – 650mm) kubva pakudyara kusvika pakuibva.

Varimi vanokurudzirwa kudyara kana kuchinge kwanaya mvura inokwana kumeresa mbeu (>30mm mumazuva matatu akatevedzana). Mbeu iyi haikurudzirwi kuwarika pasi kana kudyara mvura isati yanaya nekuti haimeri zvakanaka.

Nguva yakanaka kudyara soya beans kubva pakati pemwedzi waMbudzi kusvika pakati paZvita nokuti inoda kushandisa kudziya kwekunze (heat units) kunowanikwa panguva iyi kuti ikure zvakanaka. Kukasira kudyara kunoita kuti soya beans dziwane mvura yakakwana, dzisazopererwa nehunyoro panguva yekuita maruva nekubereka.

Kudyara panguva iyi kwakanaka nokuti mbeu inosvika pakuibva kunze kusati kwatanga kutonhora zvichizokwidza goho.

Zvakakosha kuti munda urimwe kusvika pakuti ivhu ratsetseka (fine tilth) nokudaro murimi anofanira kuputsa mavhinga kana kuti maghadhi anenge ari mumunda kuitira kuti mbeu nevhu zvisangane nenzira inoita kuti mbeu imere zvakanaka (good seed to soil contact).

Murimi anoda mbeu ine huwandu hwuri pakati pe90 – 100 kg pahekita. Madzinde esoya beans atinokurudzira pandima ye1 hekita ari pakati pe200 000 kusvika 500 000 asi zvakakosha kuti murimi azive kuti kuwanda kwemadzinde kunoita kuti mbeu idonhe mumunda (logging).

Kubva pane umwe mutsara kuenda pane umwe siyanisai ne25 – 90 cm. Mbeu haidi kuiswa pasi zvakanynya nokuti haizomeri zvakanaka. Tinokurudzira kuti varimi vadzikise mbeu muvhu kubva pa25mm – 50 mm.

Murimi anokwanisa kudyara achishandisa fertireza yeCompound L kana Soya Blend, asi chakakosha ndechekuti murimi anofanira kuongororesa ivhu rake kuti azive huwandu nemhando yemafertireza anodiwa pamunda pake. Zvisinei nepasvika mwaka, murimi anenge atononoka kuongororesa ivhu rake nokudaro anokwanisa kushandisa mafertireza aya nehuwandu hunobva pa200 kg – 300kg pahekita kana takanangana neCompound L (5:18:10).

Pakutenga mafertireza, cherechedzai huwandu hwekudya kunenge kuri mufertireza kuburikidza nekuverenga zvibodzwa zvinenge zvakanyorwa pasaga (nutrient constitution). Zvakakoshazve kuti murimi ashandise inonzi Rhizobium nokuti inobatsira kuti soya beans dzigadzire kudya kwakafanana nekuri mufertireza yepamusoro, uko kunozoita kuti mbesa ikure mhumhu (vegetative growth).

Kana Rizhobium ikashanda zvakanaka, murimi anokwanisa kurega kushandisa fertireza yetop.

Pakushandisa Rhizobium, zvakakosha kuti murimi azive kuti inoda kugara munotonhorerera asati aishandisa nokuti ikagara panodziya inopera simba kana kufa. Rizobium inosanganiswa nembeu pakudyara asi zvakakosha kuti isagara pamusoro pefertireza nekuti inotsva. Tinokurudzira kuti pakudyara murimi afushire fertireza nevhu shoma asati akanda mbeu ine Rhizobium.

Soya beans haidi kumera mumunda pamwe chete nesora nekudaro zvakosha kushandisa mishonga noenderana nesora rinonetsa pamunda panguva yekudyara kuti mbesa dzimere zvakanaka. Munda unofanira kugara usina sora kwemavhiki 6 ekutanga kukura kwembeu. Izvi zvinoita kuti murimi awane goho repamusoro.

Zvakakosha kudzivirira twumbuyu nokuti twunodzikisa goho. Murimi anofanira kumema munda wake nguva nenguva achicherechedza kuti pane chasanduka here (scouting), uye kuti twumbuyu/twupukanana twasvika here huwandu hwunokwanisa kudzikisa goho. Panguva iyi murimi anokudzirwa kupfapfaidza mishonga kuti dambudziko risaenderere. Murimi pinda pakati pemunda kwete kungomema kunze nekuti dambudziko rinogona kutangira pakati uye twumbuyu twunogona kugara kuseri kwemashizha kana pamoyo wechirimwa.

Pakukohwa, zvakakosha kuti murimi acherechedze kuti mazuva ekuibva akwana, uye kuti mashizha ave kuoma nekudonha here kuratidza kuibva. Murimi anofanira kukohwa kana mbesa yasvika pahunyoro hwe11%. Zvakakosha kukohwa nekukasira kuitira kuti soya beans dzisaputikire mumunda (pod shattering). Kana dzikaputikira mumunda goho rinodzika.

Varimi vanokwanisa kushandisa muchina (combine harvester) kana nemaoko voita zvekupura.

Pakutengesa soya beans dzine misika inosanganisira kuGMB, imwe misika inogadzira semafuta kana chikafu chezvipfuyo.

Varimi rangarirai kuti kurima ibhizimusi nokudaro zvakakosha kucherechedza zvese zvinoita kuti tisare tiine mari yakawanda muhomwe (return per dollar invested).

l Wendy Madzura mudhumeni kuSeed Co.

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